Pivotal Engineering Journal

Technical articles from Pivotal engineers.

Trilogy - the database testing framework

A quick overview of a new database-agnostic SQL testing framework

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Categories:   SQL    TDD    Testing frameworks    Databases   
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A bird’s eye view of the new SQL testing framework.


Having had various issues with database testing using existing tools and frameworks, after some further investigation, we have decided to start a new database testing framework that would provide the abilities to:

  • leverage TDD for database development
  • run tests within CI and CD workflows
  • easily create new tests and test cases
  • share the test cases among team members
  • deliver easily readable and shareable reports
  • test against various databases
  • have some fun along the way


As any agile project, Trilogy did not have full upfront design. Rather, the items outlined above were providing guidance for decisions being made along the way.

CI/CD integration

The ability to run within a CI/CD workflow was one of the biggest, if not the framework’s main purpose. And since Concourse is the most popular tool within Pivotal, the framework was initially designed so that it could be used with it. The framework itself has a Concourse test pipeline that can be used as an example. The current setup uses Oracle, but adding Postgres to the mix is fairly straightforward and is also planned in the nearest future.

Project format

The chosen project format resolves several issues at the same time.

Unlike other tools, that require database modifications to run, such as pgTAP, utPLSQL or Oracle SQL Developer, Trilogy is running the tests externally, and does not require any database modifications. More importantly, Trilogy test projects are stored externally as plain text files that can be easily added to any VCS, such as git. They can be executed anytime against any available database.

The format of the test case definition is based on Markdown for a few reasons. First of all, the developer using the framework wouldn’t have to deal with a whole new programming language in order to use it. Secondly, the testcase definition could be used to produce human-readable reports with every test marked with red or green depending on the outcome. And, finally, if the text editor has a Markdown preview capability, it’s easy to spot any mistakes visually, e.g. when a value has been placed in the wrong column of the test table.

Database independence

Having a tool for Oracle is a good start, but it does not make sense to lock in to a particular database vendor. Therefore we have decided to leverage the wealth of JDBC database drivers and abstractions.

This has brought around a number of problems. For example, the procedural tests do not work for Postgres, as there is no such thing as a stored procedure, all of the Postgres routines are functions, even though some of them are functions with a void return type. The fact that JDBC needs to know the return type in advance, forced us to postpone the procedural tests for Postgres to a later time, and to come up with generic tests instead (see below).

Current progress

Although, at the time of writing, Trilogy hasn’t yet reached version 1.0, it already covers most critical use cases, and can be extremely useful during development. Feel free to grab the latest release and give it a try.

Trilogy can run in two modes: standalone test case and test project. The standalone test case mode was the stepping stone for the test project mode, however it can still be useful sometimes. Both modes are explained in more detail below.

Standalone test cases

The easiest way to start is the standalone test case. It is a text file with an .stt extension that contains a definition of a single test case (stt stands for SQL Testing Tool). Standalone test cases have less functionality - all of their limitations stem from the fact that a standalone test does not have any resources it can reference. Therefore, a standalone test case cannot use fixtures, schema, or load any SQL source before execution.

Each test case must have a meaningful description and a collection of tests. The tests can be either generic or procedural, depending on the test case type, and cannot be mixed in the same file.

Generic test case

First line of a generic test case is invariably # TEST CASE. The generic test case is very simple. Every test within it defines a SQL snippet that will be executed as part of the test. Optionally, a test can also have any number of named assertions. The reason for having those assertions is solely for having more granular feedback, as the failed assertion name can be more specific than the test name. For example:

Decreasing customer balance
Should be able to decrease positive balance
DO $$
Balance should be zero
DO $$
  for row in plpy.execute("SELECT BALANCE FROM CUSTOMER BALANCE WHERE ID=123"):
    if row['BALANCE'] is not 0:
      raise RuntimeError('Balance is expected to be 0')
$$ LANGUAGE plpythonu;
A transaction should be recorded
DO $$
      RAISE EXCEPTION 'Expected at least one transaction to have been recorded. None were found.';
      RAISE EXCEPTION 'Expected only one transaction to have been recorded. More than one found.';
  IF AMT <> -120 THEN
    RAISE EXCEPTION 'Expected the transaction amount to be -120, but it was %', AMT;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

In this case the TEST clause does the database setup, and executes the procedure. If an error occurs, the test will fail, and the error will be reported. If we put the assertions into the same code block, and one of them fails, we would still get a failure, but will have to decipher the cause of the failure from the database output.

Procedural test case

Procedural test case is a special case of a generic one. The procedure name must follow the words TEST CASE in the first line of the file. Procedural test cases only work with stored procedures and cannot be applied to stored functions at the time of writing. They are known to work with Oracle RDBMS, and not with PostgreSQL. Ironically, this type of test case preceded the generic implementation during the framework development.

Data table

The whole test case is tied to a specific stored procedure, and rather than specifying a code block as a test definition, a data table is used instead. Every column in the table is named after an argument. Due to the fact a stored procedure can accept an INOUT argument, we have borrowed the idea of suffixing the OUT arguments as well as the OUT part of the INOUT argument with a $ sign from Oracle SQL Developer. The output arguments are optional, and are used to verify the output values. The null values are specified by using the string __NULL__.

Error verification

Additionally, a column with a special name =ERROR= can be provided to verify errors. Absence of a value in this column implies that no error is expected. The special keyword any can be used to denote that an error is expected, but the kind of error is not important. And finally, the error message, or a part of it can be used to match against the actual error.

A standalone procedural test case can be used to test procedures that do not need any setup to run, for example, procedures without side effects. Below is an example of a test that assumes presence of a stored procedure with the signature DIVIDE(ARG_1 IN NUMBER, ARG_2 IN NUMBER, RESULT OUT NUMBER):

Dividing numbers
Integer division
### DATA
|ARG_1     |ARG_2     |RESULT$   |=ERROR=|
| 1        | 1        | 1        |       |
| 3        | 3        | 1        |       |
| 58       | 2        | 29       |       |
Division by zero
### DATA
|ARG_1     |ARG_2     |RESULT$   |=ERROR=|
| 1243     | 0        |          |  zero |

Test projects

In order to make the tests independent of the current database state, they would need to run some setup code. Additionally, if the developer is using TDD, (s)he would want to regularly re-apply the code that is being worked on to the test database. Lastly, it is important for many database tests to apply some fixtures before running the tests so that they would be able to produce predictable results.

A test project is divided into folders: src for the SQL source currently being worked on, and tests containing tests and all the supporting files.

The supporting files must go into the tests/fixtures directory. There are two types of supporting files: fixtures, and schema. The schema, if used, should be stored as tests/fixtures/schema.sql within the project. The fixtures must be separated between the tests/fixtures/setup and tests/fixtures/teardown folders. This allows to use the same name for a fixture in a different context.

Test cases

The test cases in a project would look exactly like the standalone ones, but with a few enhancements. Before specifying the tests, test cases in a project can also specify fixtures to be executed before or after a certain point. Generic test cases support four points BEFORE ALL, BEFORE EACH TEST, AFTER EACH TEST and AFTER ALL. In addition to that, procedural test cases also support BEFORE EACH ROW and AFTER EACH ROW. The BEFORE sections can only reference the setup fixtures, while the AFTER can only reference the teardown ones. All fixture files are expected to have a sql extension and can be referenced either by filename without the extension, or by converting the filename to a sentence. For example, grate_some_cheese__.sql can be either referenced as grate_some_cheese__ or as Grate some cheese. Each section can contain a list of fixtures to load:

- Setup client
- Set client balance
- Remove transactions
- Remove clients
... rest of the test case ...


To get a better idea of how the projects are structured and can be used, examine the sample projects and test cases in the project’s GitHub repository. These examples are used for testing the framework itself, so, unlike this blog post, they should always be up to date.


  • Support for external data loading tools
  • Generate a script for the DBA to apply to the production database
  • Test run report generation (HTML/PDF)
  • Support for LOBs
  • Enhanced reporting
  • Improve assertion options
  • Focusing on one or more tests or test cases
  • Transactional management and parallel execution


I want to give special thanks to Brian Butz for his help with the project kick-off, and to the fellow Dublin Pivots - Gregorio Patricio, Deborah Wood, Cassio Dias, Luis Urraca, Colm Roche and Ian Huston for their invaluable contribution to the project.